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Table 2 Characteristics of the population samples evaluated in the studies included in the review

From: Prosodic processing post traumatic brain injury - a systematic review

Study Study population Characteristics matched Age at assessment Sex Time between injury and assessment Localization of brain injury, type of TBI/CHI Mechanism of injury Severity of TBI
Dennis et al. [40] 71 children previously hospitalized for TBI and 57 with orthopaedic injuries (OI) without loss of consciousness or brain injury. Exclusion: (1) history of serious injury, (2) premorbid neurological disorder or mental retardation, (3) child abuse or assault, (4) severe psychiatric disorder requiring hospitalization, (5) sensory or motor impairment that prevented assessment and (6) primary language other than English Age at injury and assessment, sex, race, SES, mechanism of injury TBI and OI controls: 8–13 years old OI: 34 males, 23 females; TBI: 47 males, 24 females 12 and 63 months (1) Focal lesion: mild/moderate TBI: 83%; severe TBI: 55%; (2) diffuse lesion: mild/moderate TBI: 50%; severe TBI: 45%; (3) skull fracture: mild/moderate TBI: 56%; severe TBI: 50% (1) MVA: OI: 5%; mild/moderate TBI: 32%; severe TBI: 52%; (2) sports/bike/recreation: OI:72%; mild/moderate TBI: 38%; severe TBI:24%; (3) fall: OI: 23%; mild/moderate TBI: 30%; severe TBI: 5 24% Mild/moderate: GCS scores 9–15 (n = 50); severe: GCS scores 3–8 (n = 21)
Dimoska et al. [38] 18 adults with moderate–severe TBI and 18 healthy controls. Inclusion: (1) experiencing social difficulties post-TBI, (2) sufficient cognitive and motor capacity to do study and (3) fluent in English. Exclusion: (1) premorbid neurological or psychiatric conditions, (2) current aphasia or agnosia and (3) current psychosis Age, education TBI: 22 to 63 years (mean 45.2; SD 11.7). Control: 23–62 years (mean 44.4; SD 12.1) TBI: 13 males, 5 females Mean time post-injury = 15.0 years (SD 9.5 months) Mixed, as shown by CT scan MVA: 11; assault: 4; fall: 2; blow to head: 1 PTA mean duration: 79.8 days (range 1–270 days); severity based on clinical judgment of CT scans/medical records and PTA, though specific criteria not specified
Ietswaart et al. [36] 30 TBI patients and 32 orthopaedic controls (OC). Inclusion for TBI: (1) diagnosis of TBI, (2) CT scan diagnosis or (3) evidence PTA. Exclusion criteria: (1) neurological or psychiatric history, (2) history of alcohol or drug dependency, (3) dementia or learning difficulties and (4) persistent post-injury language deficits; an extra exclusion criterion for OC was brain injury or PTA Age, years of education, SES, sex 16–70 years old for TBI and OC TBI: 25 males and 5 females. OC: 28 males and 4 females Immediately after injury. Average interval = 2.1 (S.D. 1.8) months for TBI group. Follow-up: 1 year later CT scans: 12 had damage mostly in frontal lobes, 6 mostly in temporal or parietal areas and 6 had diffuse lesions. No lesion information was available for six patients Road traffic accidents: 13; fall from height: 5; other falls: 6; assault: 5; other causes: 3 Mild TBI: GCS 13–15 or PTA <24 h; moderate TBI: GCS 9–12 or PTA 1–7 days; severe TBI: GCS <9 or PTA >7 days
McDonald and Saunders [39] 34 adults with severe TBI and 28 healthy matched controls without neurological damage. Inclusion: (1) suffered a severe TBI resulting in altered consciousness of 1+ day and (2) fluent in English, not diagnosed with aphasia, normal sight and hearing. Mean length of PTA was 76 days (SD = 59) Age, sex TBI: 21 to 64 years (mean = 41). Controls: mean = 40.7 years, SD = 11.8 TBI: 9 females, 25 males. Controls: 22 males, 6 females At least 1 year post-injury, on average 9.5 years post-injury (SD = 8) Heterogeneous type (contusions, hemorrhages, hematoma, fracture) and location (bilateral, unilateral, frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, basal ganglia) of injuries, with majority of frontal lobe lesions MVA: 22; assault: 5; fall 5; work-related injury: 2 Mean length of PTA was 76 days (SD = 59). Specific criteria not reported
Milders et al. [37] 17 TBI patients without history of psychiatric disease or a premorbid alcohol or drug addiction. 17 healthy participants served as controls. A relative of each patient rated aspects of patient’s emotional and social behaviour before and after injury Gender, age, years of education TBI: 19 and 42 years (M = 30.5, SD = 13.3)
Controls: M = 29.1, SD = 12.1
TBI: 7 females, 10 males. Controls: 7 females, 10 males Mean = 4.4 years (SD = 4.9) Not reported Road traffic accident: 15; domestic accident: 1; assault: 1 Severe TBI: mean length of PTA = 33.6 days, SD = 27; GCS ≤8. Moderate TBI: GCS 9–12
Schmidt et al. [33] 69 children with orthopaedic injury (OI) and 75 with non-penetrating moderate to severe TBI. All were English speaking, had never previously been hospitalized for a head injury, were not injured by abuse and did not history of mental retardation or pervasive developmental disorder Sex, SES TBI and OI: 7–17 years of age at time of injury TBI: 49 males, 26 females. OI: 50 males, 19 females Assessed at 5 points in 2 years post-injury: baseline (within 1 month), then 3, 12, 18 and 24 months post-TBI Not reported 7 motorcycle/moped; 5 bicycle; 12 fall; 4 sports/play; 12 hit by motor vehicle; 2 other Moderate: lowest post-resuscitation GCS scores of 9–12 or GCS scores of 13–15 with brain lesions (contusions, hematomas) indicated by CT. Severe TBI: GCS scores of 3–8
Schmidt et al. [34] 45 children with moderate or severe TBI and 46 with orthopaedic injury (OI). Inclusion criteria: English speaking, no previous hospitalization for head injury, no previous diagnosis of a severe psychiatric disorder, mental retardation or a neurodevelopmental disorder SES, sex TBI and OI: 7–17 years at time of injury TBI: 14 females; 31 males; OI: 13 females, 33 males Immediately after injury and at 3 months Heterogeneous, as demonstrated by MRI and tracked by DTI Low speed = 29; high speed = 16 Moderate TBI: GCS score 9–12 or 13–15 with brain lesions (contusions, haematomas) indicated by CT scans. Severe TBI: GCS scores of 3–8
Zupan and Neumann [35] 60 adults with moderate to severe TBI and 60 healthy controls. TBI must have GCS score, PTA or LOC indicative of moderate/severe TBI. Exclusion: presence of developmental affective disorder, acquired neurological disorder, psychiatric disorder and/or impaired vision or hearing. Controls were excluded if they had history of TBI or concussion. For all, English was the primary language Age TBI: 21.6 to 63 years (mean = 40.98; SD = 12.45); control: 18 to 63.2 years (mean = 40.64; SD = 13.04) TBI: 37 males and 23 females; control: 38 males and 22 females At least 6 months post-injury Not reported Not reported Moderate to severe TBI (GCS ≤12; PTA ≥24 h; LOC ≥24 h)