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Table 1 Characteristics of the studies included in the review

From: Prosodic processing post traumatic brain injury - a systematic review

Study Study type Journal published in Study location Exposure method—overall Methods that assesses prosodic processing Outcome measures Limitations
Dennis et al. [40] Retrospective cohort study Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society Canada and USA Pictures of scenarios presented in forms of literal truth, ironic criticism and empathic praise as indicated by audiotapes of speaker’s utterances with neutral, ironic or empathic intonation. Participants were asked about facts and beliefs and to identify the intent of the speaker indicated by their tones Participants must identify the intent of the speaker as indicated by their tones Cognition, conation, identifying empathy and irony through prosody While irony and empathy were presented through audio, the scenarios were delivered via pictures.
Dimoska et al. [38] Retrospective cohort study Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society Australia To assess participant's perception of emotion in voice, they completed two discrimination tasks using spoken sentences that varied in the amount of semantic information: that is, (1) well-formed English, (2) a nonsense language, and (3) low-pass filtered speech producing "muffled" voices. Participants also completed neuropsychological tests measuring impulsivity, cognitive/executive functions and inhibition of prepotent, automatic response Materials: (1) audios of semantically well-formed or non-sense sentences with good phonetics and prosody spoken in various emotions and (2) muffled sentences without semantics and intact pitch/contour. Procedures: (1) same/different judgments for emotions portrayed by muffled and non-sense sentences and (2) identify emotional tone using prosody only or with semantics Emotion recognition from voice Small sample size, heterogeneous study population
Ietswaart et al. [36] Prospective cohort study Neuropsychologia UK (1) Labelling facial expressions and labelling morphed facial expressions, (2) labelling emotions from prosody and prosodic discrimination, (3) assessments for language comprehension deficits, (4) assessment of mental speed and pre-morbid intelligence and (5) test of depression and anxiety (1) Emotional prosody discrimination: neutral sentences spoken in same/different emotional tone, (2) labelling emotions of neutral sentences spoken different emotional tones and (3) non-emotional prosody discrimination: sentences spoken in interrogative or declarative tone Emotional recognition from face and prosody, depression and anxiety Limited information for lesion analysis
McDonald and Saunders [39] Retrospective cohort study Journal of The International Neuropsychological Society Australia Ambiguous or neutral scenarios depicted in emotional (happy, surprised, angry, sad, fearful, disgusted) or neutral format. The emotional stimuli were presented via (1) audiovisual, (2) “still” photographs, (3) dynamic visual and (4) audio-only. Participants were presented with all four formats and asked to label emotions Identifying emotions portrayed in audio and audio-visual format Emotion recognition through various media formats Controls had significantly more years of education than TBI
Milders et al. [37] Retrospective cohort study Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology UK Participants were assessed for (1) emotional and behavioural consequences, (2) home integration, social integration and work integration (employment), (3) recognition of facial expression, (4) understanding intentions and social situation and (5) recognition of emotional prosody Prosody discrimination: pairs of neutral sentences spoken in same/different (a) non-emotional tones and (b) emotional tones, (c) labelling emotional prosody and (d) labelling emotions when semantics conflicted with prosody Emotional/behavioural issues, social integration, emotion recognition (face and prosody) Small sample size, possible biased recruitment method
Schmidt et al. [33] Prospective cohort study Neuropsychologia USA Participants were assessed on recognition of emotions from voice and visual cues. They also did 2 control tasks, one that tests phonological discrimination and the other for face identity recognition (1) Emotional prosody task: indicate emotions portrayed in audio of 4 semantically neutral sentences spoken in different emotional prosody and (2) phonological discrimination: match/non-match judgments made for 2 non-sense words that were identical or varied by a single phoneme Labelling emotions from prosody and face, phonological discrimination Only used one emotional prosody task, with limited trials
Schmidt et al. [34] Prospective cohort study Brain injury USA All were assessed on labelling emotional prosody, phonological discrimination and cognitive/neuropsychological tests at baseline and 3 months and underwent MRI at 3 months. DTI analysis was performed to investigate tracts that connect brain regions associated with emotional prosody (1) Emotional prosody task: identify audio of neutral sentences spoken in different emotional prosody and (2) phonological discrimination: same/different judgments made for pairs of non-words that were identical or varied by a single phoneme Emotional prosody recognition, phonological discrimination. Quantitative DTI variables (1) Restricted to participants in a relatively acute stage of recovery and (2) did not take into account mechanism of injury
Zupan and Neumann [35] Retrospective cohort study Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation USA (1) Unimodal: facial affect recognition, (2) unimodal vocal affect recognition and (3) affect recognition from context-enriched multimodal medium. Participants were asked to identify emotions (2) Vocal affect recognition (Diagnostic Analysis of Nonverbal Affect 2 -Voices): repetitions of neutral sentence spoken different emotional tones. Participants asked to indicate emotion portrayed Recognition of emotions through voice, face and multimodal medium No direct comparison for multimodal task (novel method); did not collect data on psychiatric issues