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Table 1 Conceptual framework for implementation fidelity used in this review

From: Comparison of registered and published intervention fidelity assessment in cluster randomised trials of public health interventions in low- and middle-income countries: systematic review protocol

Fidelity components
 Content Defined as an attempt to establish the “active ingredients” of the intervention, for example, in a theory of change or logic model, and assess whether they have been delivered as planned
 Coverage Refers to the degree to which all persons who met study inclusion criteria received the intervention
 Frequency Refers to whether the intervention was delivered with the regularity or frequency planned by its designers.
 Duration Establishes whether the intervention was delivered with the duration planned by its designers.
Moderating factors
 Comprehensiveness of intervention description Factors such as the degree of intervention complexity and whether the intervention description is complete or incomplete, vague, or clear may influence the degree of implementation fidelity.
 Strategies to facilitate implementation Several support strategies may be used to optimise and to standardise implementation fidelity.
 Quality of delivery Concerns whether an intervention is delivered in a way that increases the likelihood of achieving the desired health outcomes
 Participant responsiveness Intervention uptake depends on its acceptance by and acceptability to those receiving it. Low participant involvement or responsiveness may negatively impact intervention fidelity.
 Recruitmenta Refers to procedures that were used to attract potential programme participants.
 Contexta Refers to the surrounding social systems, such as structures and cultures of organizations and groups, and historical and concurrent activities and events
  1. Adapted from Carrol et al. [24]
  2. aThese components were added by Hasson [36]