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Table 4 Incremental costs, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness (with ‘provisionally included’ code option)

From: Use of cost-effectiveness analysis to compare the efficiency of study identification methods in systematic reviews

  Safety first Double screening Single screening Single screening with text mining
Resource use and costs—research staff
Resource use item Time (min) Unit cost (£) Cost (£) Time (min) Unit cost (£) Cost (£) Time (min) Unit cost (£) Cost (£) Time (min) Unit cost (£) Cost (£)
 Teleconferences to establish inter-rater reliability 1200 1.175 1410 1200 1.175 1410
 Title-abstract screening 24,954 1.175 29,321 24,954 1.175 29,321 12,477 0.97 12,103 4504 0.97 4369
 Teleconferences to resolve disagreements about title-abstract eligibility (coding) decisions 5420 1.175 6371
 Full-text retrieval 10,000 0.97 9700 8820 0.97 8555 9584 0.97 9296 7684 0.97 7453
 Full-text screening 25,000 1.175 29,375 22,050 1.175 26,016 23,960 1.175 28,153 19,210 1.175 22,572
 Teleconferences to resolve disagreements about full-text eligibility (coding) decisions 2950 1.175 3466 2950 1.175 3466 2950 1.175 3466 2950 1.175 3466
Total cost £73,272 £75,139 £53,018 £37,860
Incremental cost £35,412 £37,279 £15,158
Effectiveness—number of inappropriate exclusions avoided
 Recall 100 % 100 % 99 % 95 %
 Number of eligible studies identified 169 169 168 161
Incremental effectiveness 8 8 7
Cost-effectiveness—incremental cost per inappropriate exclusion avoided (ICER)
Base case £4427 £4660 a £2165
 Sensitivity analysis 1a £2867 £3100a £1613
 Sensitivity analysis 1b £5986 £6219a £2718
 Sensitivity analysis 2a £4008 £4438a £1767
 Sensitivity analysis 2b £4852 £4855a £2564
 Sensitivity analysis 3a £4427 £4262b £2358
 Sensitivity analysis 3b £4427 £5058a £2358
 Sensitivity analysis 4a £2213 £2330a £1179
 Sensitivity analysis 4b £4274 £4624a £832
  1. All costs are expressed in 2013 GBP (£) prices
  2. aDominated by ‘safety first’
  3. bDominates ‘safety first’
  4. The italics highlight rows containing the principal results