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Table 1 Description of included studies

From: Progesterone vs. synthetic progestins and the risk of breast cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Study population Age (mean) ±SD Location Group 1 Group 2 Type and route of estrogen Follow-up (mean) in years Outcomes
Espie et al. [16] 4949 postmenopausal women were included in two groups: exposed group, 2693 postmenopausal women who were receiving MHT or who stopped <5 years, and unexposed group, 2256 postmenopausal women who had never received MHT or who had stopped >5 years.
MHT regimes were estradiol alone (351 postmenopausal women), estradiol + natural progesterone and estradiol + synthetic progestins (excluding medroxyprogesterone acetate and 19-nortestosterone derivatives)
60.6 ± 6.3 for exposed group, 64.2 ± 8.3 for unexposed group France Estradiol + natural progesterone
N1 = 999
Estradiol + synthetic progestins (excluding medroxyprogesterone acetate and 19-nortestosterone derivatives)
N2 = 1272
Estradiol transdermal in 78 % and oral in 22 % 2.5 Breast cancer risk
Fournier et al. 2008 [8] 80,377 postmenopausal women were included in two groups: MHT never-users with 23,703 postmenopausal women and MHT ever-users with 56,674 postmenopausal women.
MHT regimes were estrogen alone, estrogen + progesterone, estrogen + dydrogesterone, estrogen + other progestins, weak estrogens and other unknown MHT
(almost exclusively estradiol compounds)
55.0 ± 4.8 for MHT never-users, 52.3 ± 4.1 for MHT ever-users France Estrogen + progesterone (almost exclusively estradiol compounds) Estrogen + synthetic progestins (almost exclusively estradiol compounds) Postmenopausal women received either oral or transdermal estrogen (% not reported) 8.1 Breast cancer risk
Cordina-Duverger et al. 2013 [17] 1555 postmenopausal woman, 739 cases treated with combined estrogen and progestagen. 816 controls Range (25–75) France Estrogen + progesterone: 25 cases and 34 controls Estrogen + synthetic progestins : 55 cases and 43 controls Not specified 4 Breast cancer risk
  1. MHT menopausal hormone therapy