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Table 4 Notations for qualitative question formulation

From: Searching for qualitative research for inclusion in systematic reviews: a structured methodological review

Notation Components Source
3WH What (topical), Who (population), When (temporal), How (methodological) [28]
BeHEMoTh Behaviour, Health context, Exclusions, Models or Theories [9]
CIMO Context, Intervention, Mechanisms, Outcomes [97]
ECLIPSe Expectations (improvement, innovation or information), Client group (recipients of service), Location (where service is housed), Impact (what change in service and how measured), Professionals involved, Service [95]
PEICO(S) Person, Environment, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes, (Stakeholders) [98]
PICO Patient/Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes [139]
PICo Population, phenomenon of Interest, Context [102]
PICOC Patient/Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes, Context [31]
PICOS Patient/Population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcomes, Study type [101]
SPICE Setting, Perspective, Intervention/phenomenon of Interest, Comparison, Evaluation [96]
SPIDER Sample, Phenomenon of Interest, Design, Evaluation, Research type [13]