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Table 4 Associations between socio-demographic factors and community-onset sepsis: cohort and case-control studies

From: Community-onset sepsis and its public health burden: a systematic review

Study ID country Geographic scope and setting Study design Sample size N Type of sepsis Risk factor (reference and exposure groups) Summary measure of association (exposure vs. reference group) 95% CI Covariates adjusted for Methodological quality
Age (years)
Ginde 2013 [47] The USA Nationwide Retrospective cohort study Severe <65 Ref 1.00 sex and race/ethnicity Low quality
ED ≥65 OR=1.00 (0.52, 1.90)
N (cohort baseline – all ED visits)= 87,500,000
Wang 2012 [36] REGARDS-sepsis cohort study β2012-2015 The USA Nationwide Prospective cohort study Non-severe 45-54 Ref 1.00 Not adjusted (crude) Acceptable quality
  Hospital ward, ED 55-64 HRR=1.44 (1.04, 2.00)
N (cohort baseline)=30,239 65-74 HRR=2.29 (1.66, 3.16)
75≤ HRR=3.87 (2.80, 5.35)
Henriksen 2015b [43] Denmark City/municipal Case-control study All 15-64 Ref 1.00 Sex, alcoholism- related conditions, comorbidity, and immunosuppression Low quality
ED, ICU N (cases)=1,713 65-84 OR=3.09 (2.75, 3.48)
N (controls)=227,054 ≥85 OR=6.02 (5.09, 7.12)
Non-severe 15-64 Ref 1.00 See above
65-84 OR=2.15 (1.78, 2.60)
≥85 OR=3.66 (2.74, 4.88)
Severe 15-64 Ref 1.00 See above
65-84 OR=3.93 (3.39, 4.56)
≥85 OR=7.84 (6.38, 9.63)
Sex
Ginde 2013 [47] The USA Nationwide Retrospective cohort study Severe Female Ref 1.00 Age and race/ethnicity Low quality
ED Male OR=1.13 (0.62, 2.00)
N (cohort baseline– all ED visits)= 87,500,000
Wang 2012 [36] REGARDS-sepsis cohort study β 2012-2015 The USA Nationwide Hospital ward, ED Prospective cohort study analysis Non-severe Female Ref 1.00 Not adjusted (crude) Acceptable quality
  N (cohort baseline)=30,239 Male HRR=1.30 (1.15, 1.48)
Henriksen 2015b [43] Denmark City/municipal Case-control study All Female Ref 1.00 Age, alcoholism- related conditions, comorbidity, and immunosuppression Low quality
ED, ICU N (cases)=1,713 Male OR=1.01 (0.91, 1.11)
N (controls)=227,054
Non-severe Female Ref 1.00 See above
Male OR=0.89 (0.76, 1.05)
Severe Female Ref 1.00 See above
Male OR=1.07 (0.95, 1.22)
Race/ethnicity
Ginde 2013 [47] The USA Nationwide Retrospective cohort study Severe Non-Hispanic White Ref 1.00 Age and sex Low quality
Non-Hispanic Black OR=1.30 (0.62, 2.60)
ED N (cohort baseline– all ED visits)= 87,500,000 Hispanic OR=0.63 (0.23, 1.70)
Other OR=2.40 (0.87, 6.50)
Wang 2012 [36] REGARDS-sepsis cohort study β 2012-2015 The USA Nationwide Prospective cohort study analysis Non-severe Black Ref 1.00 sex, age, geographic region, education level, income, tobacco, alcohol use, baseline chronic medical conditions, biomarkers Acceptable quality
  Hospital ward, ED N (cohort baseline)=30,239 White HRR=1.56 (1.38, 1.75)
Education
Wang 2012 [36] REGARDS-sepsis cohort study β 2012-2015 The USA Nationwide Prospective cohort study analysis Non-severe ≥College Ref 1.00 Not adjusted (crude) Acceptable quality
  Hospital ward, ED N (cohort baseline)=30,239 Some college HRR=1.41 (1.19, 1.67)
High school HRR=1.52 (1.28, 1.80)
<High school HRR=1.88 (1.54, 2.29)
Nursing home residence
Ginde 2013 [47] The USA Nationwide Retrospective cohort study Severe No Ref 1.00 Age, sex and race/ethnicity Low quality
ED Yes OR=2.60 (1.20, 5.60)
N (cohort baseline)= 87,500,000
  1. NR not reported, ICU intensive care unit, HDU high dependence unit; ED emergency department, 95% CI 95 percent confidence interval, REGARDS Reasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke, Ref reference group, OR odds ratio, HRR hazard rate ratio, NSAID non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, CKD chronic kidney disease, IL-6 interleukin-6, TNF-α tumor necrosis factor alpha, ICAM intercellular adhesion molecule, VCAM vascular cell adhesion molecule, PSS perceived stress scale, SD standard deviation, Q1-4 dietary intake quartile scores
  2. β REGARDS-sepsis cohort study publications [3238, 40, 41]