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Table 3 Incidence of community-onset sepsis: cohort studies

From: Community-onset sepsis and its public health burden: a systematic review

Study ID country Cohort and study characteristics Study design and duration of follow-up Type of sepsis Incidence – overall (total cohort) Methodological quality (high, acceptable, low)
N of cases per 100,000 population per year [95% CI] CIP % per hospitalisation or ED visit per year [95% CI] IDR (N of cases per 100,000 p-y) [95% CI]
Esteban 2007 [46] Spain Geographic scope Prospective cohort study Non-severe 367 [352, 384] 13.28% [12.76, 13.81] NR Acceptable quality
City/municipal Severe 104 [96, 113] 3.76% [3.47, 4.06] NR
FU: 4 months
Setting Septic shock 31 [27, 36] 1.11% [0.95, 1.28] NR
ICU, hospital ward
Cohort denominator
N (population)=573,149
N (hospitalisations)=15,852
Ginde 2013 [47] The USA Geographic scope Retrospective cohort study Severe NR 0.40% [0.39, 0.41] NR Low quality
Nationwide
Setting FU: 5 years
ED
Cohort denominator
N (population)=NR
N (all ED visits)=87,500,000
Harrison 2006 [11] The UK Geographic scope Retrospective cohort study Severe 66 [NR]μ 27.87% [27.52, 28.24] NR Acceptable quality
Nationwide
Setting FU: 2 years
ICU, combination of ICU with HDU
Cohort denominator
N (population)=NR
N (hospitalisations)=59,527
Henriksen 2015a [42] Denmark Geographic scope Prospective cohort study All 727 [693, 762] NR 731 [697, 767] Acceptable quality
City/municipal Non-severe 264 [243, 285] NR 265 [245, 287]
Setting FU: 1 year Severe 455 [428, 482] NR 457 [430, 485]
ED, ICU Septic shock 9 [6, 13] NR 9 [6, 14]
Cohort denominator
N (population )=235,598
N (hospitalisations)=8,358
Husak 2010 [48] Canada Geographic scope Retrospective cohort study All 103 [NR]μ NR NR Low quality
Nationwide Non-severe 64 [NR]μ NR NR
Setting FU: 5 years Severe 40 [NR]μ NR NR
ED, ICU, hospital ward
Cohort denominator
N (population or hospitalisations)=NR
Nygard 2014 [49] Norway Geographic scope Prospective cohort study Severe 50 [NR]μ 0.22% [NR]μ NR Low quality
City/municipal
Setting FU: 1 year
ED, ICU, HDU, combination of ICU with HDU
Cohort denominator
N (population or hospitalisations)=NR
Page 2015 [50] The USA Geographic scope Retrospective cohort study Severe NR CA-SS NR Low quality
Nationwide 5.75% [5.72, 5.77]
Setting FU: 1 year HCA-SS
NR 2.37% [2.35, 2.38]
Cohort denominator
N (population)=NR
N (hospitalisations)=3,355,753
Wang 2012 [36] REGARDS-sepsis cohort study 2012-2015β The USA Geographic scope Prospective cohort study Non-severe 514 [489, 539] NA 800 [760, 840] Acceptable quality
Nationwide
Setting FU: 9-10 years
Hospital ward, ED
Cohort denominator
N (population)=30,239
N (hospitalisations)=NR
Seymour 2012 [51]The USA Geographic scope Retrospective cohort study Severe NR Entire 10-year cohort NR Low quality
Regional (within-State) 3.25% [3.20, 3.31]
Setting FU: 10 years One-year cohort
Pre-hospital emergency medical services 4.93% [4.73, 5.13]
Cohort denominator
N (population)= NR
N (emergency encounters)=407,176
Wang 2007 [52] The USA Geographic scope Retrospective cohort study Severe NR 0.69% [0.61, 0.77] NR Low quality
  Nationwide
Setting FU: 4 years
ED
Cohort denominator
N (population)=NR
N (ED visits)=82,883,000
  1. CIP cumulative incidence proportion, IDR incidence density rate, HR hazard rate, n/N number, p-y person-years, 95% CI 95 percent confidence interval; REGARDS Reasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke, FU follow-up, ED emergency department, NA not applicable; NR not reported, ICU intensive care unit, HDU high dependence unit, CA-SS community-acquired severe sepsis, HCA-SS healthcare-acquired severe sepsis
  2. μ 95 % CIs cannot be calculated, due to the lack of denominator reported
  3. β REGARDS-sepsis cohort study publications [3238, 40, 41]