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Table 4 ACROBAT-NRSI risk of bias assessment [63]

From: Insertion torque recordings for the diagnosis of contact between orthodontic mini-implants and dental roots: a systematic review

Domain Risk of bias in study by Motoyoshi et al. [6] Risk of bias in study by Chen et al. [84] Risk of bias in study by Brisceno et al. [25] Risk of bias in study by Wilmes et al. [33] Risk of bias in study by McEwan [32]
Bias due to confounding Serious risk Moderate risk Serious risk Moderate risk Moderate risk
Bias in selection of participants into the study No information Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk
Bias in measurements of interventions Moderate risk Serious risk Serious risk Serious risk Moderate risk
Bias due to departures from intended interventions Low risk Serious risk Low risk Low risk Low risk
Bias due to missing data Low risk Low risk Serious risk Serious risk Moderate risk
Bias in measurement of outcomes Moderate risk No information No information No information No information
Bias in selection of the reported result Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk Low risk
Overalla Serious Serious risk Serious risk Serious risk Moderate risk
  1. Risk of bias scores
  2. Low risk of bias: the study is comparable to a well-performed randomized trial with regard to this domain
  3. Moderate risk of bias: the study is sound for a non-randomized study with regard to this domain but cannot be considered comparable to a well-performed randomized trial
  4. Serious risk of bias: the study has some important problems in this domain
  5. Critical risk of bias: the study is too problematic in this domain to provide any useful evidence on the effects of intervention
  6. No information: no information on which to base a judgement about risk of bias for this domain
  7. aOverall risk of bias score of the study. The overall risk of bias score is based on the severest risk of bias score that was identified for an individual domain; for example, when at least one domain was scored as ‘critical’ risk of bias, this means that the study as a whole has a risk of bias at least as severe