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Table 3 Reference standard related domains

From: Insertion torque recordings for the diagnosis of contact between orthodontic mini-implants and dental roots: a systematic review

Authors Reference standard Target condition Time point of conducting the reference standard
Motoyoshi et al. [6] Three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography No root contact
One point contact
2 or more points of contact
After the application of an orthodontic force of 2 Newton
Chen et al. [84] Two-dimensional radiographs and histology Contacting or damaging the root surface 3, 12, or 24 weeks (depending on the subgroup) after conducting the index test
Brisceno et al. [25] Two-dimensional peri-apical radiographs Damaging the root Immediately after conducting the index test
Wilmes et al. [33] Digital scanning of histological slides No root contact
Unilateral root contact
Bilateral root contact, i.e. penetration
After the preparation of histological slides
McEwan [32] Three-dimensional cone beam computed tomography No root contact
Root contact
Root penetration
Immediately after conducting the index test
  1. All data in this table represent those reported in the original manuscript. Additional data obtained through our protocol for ‘Contacting authors’ are not included in this table