Skip to main content

Table 3 Summary of included studies

From: Factors associated with development of gastrointestinal problems in patients with scleroderma: a systematic review

Author, year Country Time Study design Sample size Age (years) Male:female Patient characteristics Exposure Outcomes
Yamaguchi et al. [24] Japan Oct 1998–June 2005 Cross-sectional n = 64 Mean, range = 60.7, 24–85 12:52 Disease duration (<1 year, <5, <10, >10): n = 19, n = 17, n = 18, n = 10 H. pylori: positive (n = 37), negative (n = 27) H. pylori positive
% reflux esophagitis 27
% diffuse disease 17   H. pylori negative
% smoking 30 % reflux esophagitis 70
% alcohol 34
% corticosteroid use 72
Hudson et al. [25] Canada Aug 2004–Nov 2009 Cross-sectional n = 606 Mean, SD = 55, 12 79:527 % Caucasian: 87.0 Smoking status: never (n = 255), past (n = 252; mean pack-years of smoking = 17, SD = 18), current (n = 99; mean pack-years of smoking = 25, SD = 17) Never Current
Disease duration (mean, SD): 11, 9 Mean severity of GI symptoms: 1.61 out of 10 Mean severity of GI symptoms: 2.18 out of 10
% diffuse disease 36.0 Mean number of GI symptoms: 3.99 out of 14a Mean number of GI symptoms: 4.91 out of 14a
% poor appetite 28.6a % poor appetite 47.5a
% difficulty swallowing 54.1 % difficulty swallowing 59.6
% acid reflux 60.8 % acid reflux 68.7
% nocturnal choking 28.6 % nocturnal choking 29.3
% heartburn 41.6 % heartburn 54.5
% early satiety 38.8 % early satiety 51.5
% abdominal bloating 34.9 % abdominal bloating 43.4
% nausea and vomiting 14.1 % nausea and vomiting 23.2
% chronic constipation 25.5 % chronic constipation 32.3
% chronic diarrhea 23.9 % chronic diarrhea 26.3
% antibiotics for bacterial overgrowth 7.5 % antibiotics for bacterial overgrowth 6.1
% greasy stools 18.8 % greasy stools 24.2
% fecal incontinence 19.2 % fecal incontinence 22.2
% parenteral nutrition 2.4 % parenteral nutrition 2.0
% taking medications for GI symptoms 73.7 % taking medications for GI symptoms 59.6
% taking medications for GI symptoms 67.1
Radic et al. [26] Croatia Jan 2009–Dec 2010 Cross-sectional n = 42 Mean, SD = 54.3, 13.6 4:38 Disease duration (median, range): 6, 1–43 years H. pylori: positive (n = 26), negative (n = 16) H. pylori positive
% GI problems 85
% diffuse disease 95.3 H. pylori negative
% GI problems 31
  1. aDenotes p value less than 0.05