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Table 3 Study populations by categories

From: Hard-to-reach populations of men who have sex with men and sex workers: a systematic review on sampling methods

Populations Non-probabilistic N (%) Semi-probabilistic N (%) Probabilistic N (%) Mixeda N (%) Total N (%) Referencesb
MSM 64 (23.9) 128 (47.8) 6 (2.2) 7 (2.6) 205 (76.5) [1–5,7,78–80,82–84,120–126,153,155,156,158–160,189–194,222,223,237,255] [11–13,15–18,20,85,87–89,127,128,131–135,162–164,167,168,196–200,224–226,228,243,253,254,256,260,264,267] [22–25,29–31,35–40,90–104,137,138,169–171,175,176,178,201–204,206–209,229,230,244,250,265,266] [42–50,52,53,56–58,60–62,105–107,109,111–113,139,143–147,149,150,179–181,183,184,210–218,245,246,259,261] [64,67–76,115,116,118,119,152,185–188,219–221,236,242,258,263,268]
FSW 24 (9.0) 21 (7.8) 3 (1.1) 0 48 (17.9) [8–10,14,19,21,26–28,33,34,41,51,54,55,59,63,66,77,117,129,136,140,142,151,157,161,165–167,172–174,177,182,227,231–235,239,241,247–249,251,262]
MSW 2 (0.7) 2 (0.7) 0 0 4 (1.5) [108,154,205,252]
TSW 1 (0.4) 0 0 0 1 (0.4) [148]
MSM/TG 3 (1.1) 1 (0.4) 0 0 3 (1.5) [6,141,238,240]
FSW/MSM 0 1 (0.4) 0 0 1 (0.4) [32]
MSM/MSW 0 1 (0.4) 0 0 1 (0.4) [114]
MSM/MSW/TG 0 3 (1.1) 0 0 3 (1.1) [81,86,110]
MSM/MSW/TSW 0 0 0 1 (0.4) 1 (0.4) [257]
Total 94 (35.1) 157 (58.6) 9 (3.4) 8 (3.0) 268 (100.0)  
  1. aPublications that mentioned at least two categories of recruitment methods
  2. bReferences can be found in Additional file 4: Text S3