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Table 1 Opportunities for user involvement in designing and conducting research

From: Involving people with diabetes and the wider community in diabetes research: a realist review protocol

Pre-research: identifying research priorities, suggesting research ideas, commenting on usefulness of the research
Proposals: joint grant holders or co-applicants on a research project; consultants who comment on the wording of proposals or the wording of ‘lay language summaries’; feedback on the perceived relevance and utility of the proposed outcomes from a patient perspective
Research design: participate in design of the intervention for people with diabetes, review the language and user-friendliness of questionnaires, commenting and developing patient information leaflets and printed materials
Recruitment: contribute to ideas for ensuring good recruitment and participation in the study, feedback on patient consent forms and project information sheets
Data collection: participate in data collection as lay researchers undertaking interviews with research participants as user and/or carer researchers
Analysis: co-analyse data—this may include analysis of qualitative themes and identification of areas where additional clarification or further sampling is needed
Dissemination: ensuring findings are circulated and presented to local communities, patient groups, organisations
  1. Modified from Lindenmeyer et al. [13]