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Table 5 Pain and disability outcome measures - follow-up

From: Effects of education to facilitate knowledge about chronic pain for adults: a systematic review with meta-analysis

Outcome measure Study Sample size Statistic used Heterogeneity Effect size Test for overall effect Notes
   Intervention Control Total   I2 (%)   [95 % CI] Z-value p-value  
PAIN INTENSITY           
Education versus usual care           
“average pain” Soares 2002; Ruehlman 2013 18 17 35 SMD random 0 0.02 [−0.19, 0.24] 0.21 0.83 Figure 3
Comparison of different types of education        
SF36 - bodily pain van Oosterwijck 2013 15 15 30 MD random n/a −9.90 [−24.73, 4.93] 1.31 0.19  
PPQ - pain in the last week Ferrell 1997 10 10 20 MD random n/a −6.50 [−22.94, 9.94] 0.78 0.44 Sample >65 years
DISABILITY           
Education versus usual care           
PCP-S - interference Ruehlman 2012 162 143 305 MD random n/a 0.46 [−1.46, 2.38] 0.47 0.64 Figure 5
comparison of different types of education        
SF36 - physical function van Oosterwijck 2013 15 15 30 MD random n/a 8.40 [−4.27, 21.07] 1.30 0.19 Figure 7
SF36 - physical function Ferrell 1997 10 10 20 MD random n/a −1.80 [−15.71, 12.11] 0.25 0.80 Sample >65 years
  1. PCP-S profile of chronic pain-screening, PPQ patient pain questionnaire, SF-36 RAND 36-item health survey, 95 % CI 95 % confidence interval; Effect size represented as standardised mean difference (SMD) or mean difference (MD) depending on statistic used; Random = random effects model; heterogeneity is not applicable (n/a) when reported as single study