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Table 4 Pain and disability outcome measures - post-intervention

From: Effects of education to facilitate knowledge about chronic pain for adults: a systematic review with meta-analysis

Outcome measure Study Sample size Statistic used Heterogeneity Effect size Test for overall effect Notes
   Intervention Control Total   I2 (%)   [95 % CI] Z-value p-value  
PAIN INTENSITY           
Education versus usual care           
“average pain” Linton 1997; Soares 2002; Sparkes 2012; Ruehlman 2013 248 213 461 SMD random 0 −0.01 [−0.19, 0.17] 0.12 0.90 Figure 2
PPQ - pain in the last week Ferrell 1997 10 10 20 MD random n/a −2.80 [−21.09, 15.49] 0.30 0.76 Sample >65 years
Comparison of different types of education           
SF36 - bodily pain van Oosterwijck 2013 15 15 30 MD random n/a −3.40 [19.98, 13.18] 0.40 0.69  
DISABILITY           
Education versus usual care           
Disability or interference Linton 1997; Ruehlman 2012; Sparkes 2012 230 196 426 SMD random 49 0.02 [−0.31, 0.34] 0.11 0.91 Figure 4
Comparison of different types of education           
SF36 - physical function van Oosterwijck 2013 15 15 30 MD random n/a 5.30 [−8.64, 19.24] 0.75 0.46  
Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire Moseley 2004 31 27 58 MD random n/a −2.00 [−3.55, −0.45] 2.53 0.01 Favours education
Function and Disability (pooled data using negative RMDQ score for direct comparison) van Oosterwijck 2013; Moseley 2004 46 42 88 SMD random 0 0.52 [0.09, 0.95] 2.38 0.02 Figure 6; favours education
SF36 - physical function Ferrell 1997 10 10 20 MD random n/a 6.70 [−9.11, 22.51] 0.83 0.41 Sample >65 years
  1. PPQ patient pain questionnaire, SF-36 RAND 36-item health survey, 95 % CI 95 % confidence interval, effect size represented as standardised mean difference (SMD) or mean difference (MD) depending on statistic used; Random = random effects model; heterogeneity is not applicable (n/a) when reported as single study