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Table 3 Risk of bias summary showing the review authors’ judgements about each methodological quality item for each included study

From: Effects of education to facilitate knowledge about chronic pain for adults: a systematic review with meta-analysis

  Selection bias Performance bias Detection bias Attrition bias Reporting bias Other bias Total
Author (year)
In chronological order
Random sequence generation Allocation concealment Blinding of participants and personnel Blinding of outcome assessment Incomplete outcome data Selective reporting Other (eg. sample size) No. of low risk of bias ()
Morrison et al. 1988 ? ? ? X ? ? ? 0
Ferrell et al. 1997 ? ? ? ? x 2
Linton et al. 1997 ? ? ? ? 3
Soares et al. 2002 x x ? x 3
Moseley et al. 2004 ? ? 5
Ruehlman et al. 2012 ? ? ? 4
Sparkes et al. 2012 ? ? ? 4
Gallagher et al. 2013 ? 6
Van Oosterwijck et al. 2013 ? X 5
No. of studies with low risk of bias - 5 4 6 7 8 0 2  
No. of studies with uncertain/unclear - ? 3 4 3 1 1 9 4  
No. of studies with high risk of bias—X 1 1 0 1 0 0 3  
  1. () is low risk of bias, (X) high risk of bias, (?) unclear or uncertain