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Table 1 Mechanism of action of low-level laser therapy [13]

From: Low-level laser therapy and exercise for patients with shoulder disorders in physiotherapy practice (a systematic review protocol)

Types of effect Mechanisms Outcomes
Anti-inflammatory effect Activation of microcirculation Elimination of oedema
Prostaglandin level changes
Equalisation of osmotic pressure
Stabilisation of lipid peroxidation Reactivation of superoxide dysmutase and catalase Reduction of lipid peroxidation
Analgesic Activation of neuron metabolism and endorphin level growth Increase pain threshold
Reparation of wound stimulation ATP accumulation Defective epithelisation
Activation of cellular metabolism Protein and collagen synthesis
Increase proliferation of fibroblasts and other cells Capillary formation
Immune response stimulation Increase proliferation of immune modifying cells  
Accelerate maturation of immune modifying cells.  
Reflexogenic effect Excitation of nerve centres Stimulation of physiological functions