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Table 3 Data extraction and quality assessment results

From: A systematic review of the cost of data collection for performance monitoring in hospitals

Study Intervention and control Objective and type of study Setting, population, and perspective Costs Benefits Results and conclusions
Holloway et al. [6] Intervention: computerised electronic records systems, PAS-MAP Compare differences in completeness, timeliness, operability, and cost Setting: 214-bed general hospital was studied Differences in costs of PAS-MAP and manual system including: data abstraction costs, subscriptions, and summary preparation time Completeness Costs: the manual system would cost $2,593 more per year than the PAS
Comparator: manual system, hand written records Type of study: cost analysis Three departments: general practice, medicine, and surgery   Timeliness Manual system more complete, as timely, and more likely to prevent human error
   Population: physicians, medical admin staff   Operability  
   Perspective: not stated    
Klimt et al. [7] Intervention: Dictaphone for transcribing records Compare the costs and benefits of transcribing technology against the manual system Setting: Emergency Department Cost of average length of record, true transcriber cost (including salary cost, bonus), true productivity of transcriber. Equipment costs are reported Completeness Incremental cost of typing an emergency record is $1.03
Comparator: manual system Type of study: cost minimisation analysis Population: physicians and surgeons   Timeliness Transcribed medical records more complete, less timely, and more accurate
   Perspective: not stated   Operability  
     Accuracy of billings  
Tierney et al. [8] USA (Indiana) Intervention: computerised inpatient orders To assess the effects on healthcare resource utilisation of a network of microcomputer workstations for writing all inpatient orders Setting: inpatient internal medicine service hospital Total costs which include: bed costs, test costs, drug costs, and other costs. Equipment and installation costs are reported Total charges Total costs with workstations: $594 less (10.5% lower bed costs, 12.4% lower tests costs, 15.1% lower drug costs)
Comparator: normal practice Type of study: cost- consequence analysis Population: inpatients, house officers, medical students, and faculty internists   Hospital length of stay Hospital length of stay declined by 0.89 days
   Perspective: not stated   Benefits speculated  
Philp et al. [9] UK Intervention: Information system for monitoring impact of acute hospital care on health status Develop a patient information system which could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of multidisciplinary hospital care Setting: Hospital Staff time, printing, statistical analysis, computing equipment and system administration. Nurse perspective: Total annual cost per ward £6,455 to incorporate follow-up assessments
Comparator: normal practice Type of study: cost analysis Population: physicians, nurses, and junior physicians   Decision-making Undecided if decision-making, teamwork, professional care, and performance was improved
   Perspective: not stated   Teamwork Benefits for patient care can only be inferred, not proven
     Professional care  
     Performance  
Willems et al. [10] Belgium Intervention: follow-up programme that informs physicians of their compliance and outlines the financial consequences of using prophylactic antibiotics Evaluate the follow-up programme Setting: post-operative surgery and obstetrics care Cost of antibiotic use Benefits speculated Total cost of antibiotic use reduced by 50%
Comparator: previous practice Type of study: cost analysis Population: physicians    An average loss of €92,353 pre-intervention became profit average of €27,269 post-intervention
   Perspective: hospital    
Barnes et al. [13] USA (Ohio) Standardisation of coding Compare volumes, length of stay, and billings volume before and after implementation intervention Setting: Trauma Care and Surgery Department Costs are not reported Hospital length of stay Increase of $270.46 (394%) on average SHC revenue per trauma service admission
Comparator: no standardisation Type of study: not clear Population: physicians   Completeness More consistent and complete documentation of patient care.
   Perspective: not stated   Accuracy of billings  
Encinosa and Bae [11] Intervention: Basic Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) Assess whether EMRs prevent hospital-acquired conditions (HACs), death, readmissions, and high spending Setting: inpatient and outpatient departments Average cost of patient safety event Probability of death and readmission Excess spending on patient safety events declines by $4,849 or 16% due to basic EMRs
Comparator: no basic EMRs Type of study: cost effectiveness analysis Population: physicians and patients IT capital and operation costs   EMRs had no impact on the probability of a patient safety event occurring
   Perspective: not stated    EMRs reduce the probability of readmission once a patient safety event occurs
Encinosa and Bae et al. [12] Intervention: quality indicator based on five core MU elements Compare the costs and effects of using up to five elements within a quality indicator Setting: inpatient departments All hospital costs were included except physician and laboratory costs (no justification as to why these were left out and no table to describe what costs were included) Averted adverse drug event Estimated costs savings at $4,790 per averted adverse drug event
Comparator: use of 0 to 5 elements Type of study: cost effectiveness analysis Population: patients and physicians    Adoption of core MU elements can reduce ADEs, with cost savings that recoup 22% of IT costs
   Perspective: not stated