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Table 1 Quality improvement taxonomy

From: Describing methods and interventions: a protocol for the systematic analysis of the perioperative quality improvement literature

QI strategy Definition Methods Surgical examples
1. Provider education Dissemination of information Educational outreach visits Component separation training and recurrence rates
Distribution of educational material Cadaveric training and surgeon confidence
2. Provider reminder systems Any ‘clinical encounter-specific’ information intended to prompt a clinician to recall information or consider a specific process of care Decision aids MEWS
Reminders The WHO surgical safety checklist
3. Patient reminders Any methods of encouraging patient compliance to self-management Appointment reminders SMS exercise reminders before bariatric surgery
4. Promotion of self-management Access to a resource that enhances the patients' ability to manage their condition BP devices Follow up phone calls with recommended adjustments to care
Fit Bits/pedometers
5. Audit and feedback Any feedback of clinical performance PROMs Percentage of patients achieving target LOS
Morbidity and mortality
6. Patient education Dissemination of information Distribution of educational material Tri-modal pre-habilitation programme compliance and effect on LOS
Individual or group sessions
7. Organizational change Any change in organizational structure Multidisciplinary teams Changes to staff rota to facilitate early patient mobilization after elective arthroplasty
Health records
8. Financial, regulatory, or legislative incentives Any financial bonus, reimbursement or provider licensure scheme Positive or negative incentives for providers or patients 18-week wait target for elective orthopaedic surgery
9. Facilitated relay of clinical data to providers Transfer of clinical information from patients to the provider when data was not collected during a patient visit Telephone call Relay of BP measurements to the pre-assessment team
Postal contact Collection of postoperative complication data through postal survey
  1. Adapted from Shojania et al. [24] Closing the Quality Gap: A Critical Analysis of Quality Improvement Strategies (Vol. 2: Diabetes Mellitus Care). Technical Reviews, Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (US). LOS length of stay, MEWS Modified Early Warning System, BP blood pressure, WHO World Health Organization, SMS Short Message Service.