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Table 1 Four categories of behaviour outcomes as proposed by Hardeman et al.[35]

From: Community pharmacy interventions for public health priorities: protocol for a systematic review of community pharmacy-delivered smoking, alcohol and weight management interventions

Intervention The four categories of behaviour outcomes (with examples)
  Determinant of behaviour Behaviour outcomes Physiology and biochemical outcomes Health outcomes
Community pharmacy smoking cessation 1. Knowledge Cessation of smoking Improvements in lung capacity Incidence rates for lung cancer
  2. Skills    General physical or mental health (e.g. SF8, GHQ-12)
  3. Social role and identity    
  4. Beliefs about capability    Health-related quality of life (e.g. EQ5D)
  5. Beliefs about consequences    
  6. Motivation    Health service use (e.g. GP visits)
  7. Cognitive and decision processes    
  8. Environment    
  9. Social influences    
  10. Emotion    
  11. Behavioural regulation    
Community pharmacy alcohol screening and intervention 1. Knowledge Reduced score on the Fast Alcohol Screening Test (FAST) demonstrating a reduction in alcohol intake Improved liver function, reduced drinking, fewer alcohol-related sequelae Incidence rates for liver disease
  2. Skills    General physical or mental health (e.g. SF8, GHQ-12)
  3. Social role and identity    
  4. Beliefs about capability    Health-related quality of life (e.g. EQ5D)
  5. Beliefs about consequences Change in alcohol intake   
  6. Motivation Change in occasions of binge drinking?   Health service use (e.g. GP visits)
  7. Cognitive and decision processes    
  8. Environment    
  9. Social influences    
  10. Emotion    
  11. Behavioural regulation    
Community pharmacy weight management 1. Knowledge Physical activity Weight loss, reduction of BMI, reduction in waist circumference Cardiovascular risk score
  2. Skills Dietary intake   Incidence rates for CVD
  3. Social role and identity    General physical or mental health (e.g. SF8, GHQ-12)
  4. Beliefs about capability    Health-related quality of life (e.g. EQ5D)
  5. Beliefs about consequences    Health service use (e.g. GP visits)
  6. Motivation    
  7. Cognitive and decision processes    
  8. Environment    
  9. Social influences    
  10. Emotion    
  11. Behavioural regulation