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Table 1 Definition of methadone treatment outcomes for assessment

From: Sex differences in outcomes of methadone maintenance treatment for opioid addiction: a systematic review protocol

Outcome Definition Measurement of variable Statistics Studies
Drug use-related behavior
Response to treatment Abstaining from illicit opioid use throughout treatment duration Urine screening Percentage [3639]
Self reported opioid use (daily or weekly) over specified time period Mixed model ANOVA Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel statistic
Treatment retention or duration Proportion of participants completing treatment; days in treatment from first to last day of therapy Number of days patient remains in treatment Cox proportional hazards model [3638]
Proportion of patients retained in treatment for pre-specified duration of study Kaplan-Meier survival curve
Remission status post-treatment Abstinence from use of illicit opioids at follow-up Urine screening t-test [37, 3941]
Self-reported opioid use (any) after treatment 2x2 factorial ANOVA
Polysubstance use Use of at least two (non-opioid) substances throughout the course of treatment Self-reported use of substances daily or weekly or in last 30 days Percentage [37, 38]
Fischer’s Exact Test
Net reduction in proportion of drug abuse after specific duration
Health and methadone-related outcomes
Methadone dose Average daily methadone dose Milligrams/day Difference in means (SD) [38]
Mean methadone dose after specific duration in treatment
Drug-related adverse events Reaction to treatment drug Interview/physical examination Percentage [17]
Number of hospitalizations t-test
Health status Change in health status during course of therapy Interview/physical examination ANOVA [17, 40]
Number of hospitalizations
Psychological status Comorbidity of psychiatric disorders Self-reported psychiatric problems Percentage [17, 4244]
Number of reported symptoms Relative risk
Validated psychiatric assessments ANOVA
Mortality Treatment-related death or illicit drug use mortality Mortality causes Standardized mortality ratio (SMR) Kaplan-Meier survival curve [45]
Number of deaths
Annual death rate per year of age
Sociobehavioral functioning
Criminal behavior Involvement in illegal activities, arrests, or incarcerations throughout treatment or at follow-up Interview/self-report Percentage [17, 37, 39]
Current legal status t-test
High-risk sexual behavior Involvement in behaviors that put the patient at high risk for HIV and other infections Use of injection methods (30 days prior) Weighted least-squares estimation procedure [46, 47]
Number of sex partners Repeated measures ANOVA
Incidence of unprotected sex
Social relations/support Patient’s relationship status and conception of his/her relationship with others Self-report ANOVA [17]
Number of close friends/family
Marital and family status
Ratings of interactions
Employment Status of employment and evidence of financial income Change in self-reported employment status during treatment Percentage [17, 37, 39, 40]
Difference in means (SD)
Employment status after treatment
ANOVA, analysis of variance.