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Table 1 Summary of 11 studies of the association between industry funding and positive research outcome across different surgical disciplines

From: Association of industry sponsorship and positive outcome in randomised controlled trials in general and abdominal surgery: protocol for a systematic review and empirical study

Author (reference) Discipline Search strategy Investigated period Included study type (n) Positive outcomes industry vs. independent
Leopold [8] Orthopaedics 3 journals 12 months (1999–2000) All (n = 301) 79% vs. 64% p = 0.0390
Ezzet [6] Orthopaedics 3 journals, 2 congresses 12 months (2001–2002) All (n = 173) 86% vs. 24% p < 0.0001
Bhandari [5] Different fields of surgery 8 journals 18 months (1999–2001) RCT (n = 87) 81% vs. 68% p = 0.4385
Shah [13] Orthopaedics 1 journal 19 months (2002–2003) All (n = 527) 73% vs. 44% p < 0.0001
Lynch [10] Orthopaedics 1 journal (submitted manuscripts) 17 months (2004–2005) All (n = 208) 74% vs. 70% p = 0.7070
Okike [12] Orthopaedics 2 congresses 2001 + 2002 All (n = 494) 98% vs. 88% p = 0.0258
Lubowitz [9] Orthopaedics MEDLINE Open–2005 CCT/RCT (n = 23) 100% vs. 86% p = 0.6637
Yao [15] ORL 4 journals 60 months (2000–2005) RCT (n = 202) 81% vs. 79% p = 0.8538
Khan [7] Orthopaedics 5 journals 24 months (2002–2004) RCT (n = 100) 85% vs. <45% p < 0.0001
Momeni [11] Plastic surgery 3 journals 15 years (1990–2005) CCT/RCT (n = 63) 74% vs. 64% p = 0.5900
Sun [14] ORL MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, CENTRAL 1960–2010 RCT (n = 118) 35% vs. 51% p = 0.2067
  1. CCT controlled clinical trial.