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Table 1 Studies with provisional support and consideration to share individual patient data

From: Study protocol: differential effects of diet and physical activity based interventions in pregnancy on maternal and fetal outcomes—individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis and health economic evaluation

Study year Country Study characteristics Outcomes Sample size
  Maternal Fetal
Althuizen 2012 Netherlands Ethnically diverse; no BMI restrictions; age, nr; GA at inclusion, <14 weeks; glucose status, nr; other risk factors, nr GWG, GDM, preterm delivery, CS Birth weight, macrosomia 269
Barakat 2009 Spain Caucasian; BMI restrictions, nr; age, 25–35 years; GA at inclusion, nr (total at least 26 weeks intervention); glucose status, nr; no known pre-existing health problems GWG, GA, preterm delivery Birth weight, LGA, SGA, AS, macrosomia (>4,000 g) 142
Barakat 2011 Spain Spanish (White); BMI restrictions, nr; age, 23–38 years; GA at inclusion, first prenatal visit; glucose status, nr; no known pre-existing health problems GWG, GA CS, vaginal delivery Birth weight, AS 80
Barakat 2013 Spain Caucasian; no BMI restrictions; age, nr; GA at inclusion, <10 weeks; glucose status, nr; no known pre-existing health problems GWG, GA, GDM, PIH, preterm delivery Birth weight, AS 765
Bogaerts 2012 Belgium Ethnically diverse; BMI, ≥29 kg/m2; age, nr; GA at inclusion, <15 weeks; nondiabetic; other risk factors, nr GWG, GA, PE, PIH, GDM, IOL, CS, vaginal delivery Birth weight, AS 197
Cavalcante 2009 Brazil Race, nr; no morbid obesity; age restrictions, nr; GA at inclusion, 16–20 weeks; glucose status, nr; no known pre-existing health problems GWG, preterm delivery Birth weight 71
Clapp 1997 USA Race, nr; no morbid obesity; age restrictions, nr; GA at inclusion, 8 weeks; glucose status, nr; no known pre-existing health problems GWG Birth weight 51
Clapp 2000 USA Race, nr; no morbid obesity; age restrictions, nr; GA at inclusion, 8 weeks; glucose status, nr; no known pre-existing health problems GWG, GA Birth weight 12
Dodd 2014 Australia Race, nr; BMI, ≥25 kg/m2; age restrictions, nr; GA at inclusion, <20 weeks; nondiabetic; other risk factors, nr PE, PIH, GDM, IOL, CS, preterm delivery LGA, macrosomia (>4,000 g), hypoglycaemia, shoulder dystocia, admission to NICU 1,582
El Beltagy 2013 Egypt Race, nr; BMI, obese; age restrictions, nr; GA at inclusion, first antenatal visit; glucose status, nr; other risk factors, nr GWG, GDM Birth weight, macrosomia 100
Grant 2013 Canada Race, predominantly non-Caucasian; BMI restrictions, nr; age, >18 years, GA at inclusion, nr; glucose status, impaired glucose tolerance or GDM; no known pre-existing health problems GWG Birth weight, macrosomia 47
Guelinckx 2010 Belgium Caucasian; BMI, ≥29 kg/m2; age restrictions, nr; GA at inclusion, <15 weeks; nondiabetic; no known pre-existing health problems GWG, GA, PE, PIH, IOL, CS Birth weight, LGA 85
Haakstad 2011 Norway Race, nr; BMI restrictions, nr; age restrictions, nr; GA at inclusion, <24 weeks; glucose status, nr; no known pre-existing health problems GWG   105
Hui 2006 Canada Ethnically diverse; BMI restrictions, nr; age restrictions, nr; GA at inclusion, <26 weeks; nondiabetic; no known pre-existing health problems GWG, GA, GDM Birth weight, LGA 45
Hui 2011 Canada Race, nr; BMI restrictions, nr; age restrictions, nr; GA at inclusion, 20–26 weeks; nondiabetic; no known pre-existing health problems GWG, GA, GDM, CS Birth weight, LGA 224
Jackson 2010 USA Ethnically diverse; BMI restrictions, nr; age, >18 years; GA at inclusion, <26 weeks; glucose status, nr; other risk factors, nr GWG   321
Jeffries 2009 Australia Race, nr; BMI restrictions, none; age, >18 to <45 years, GA at inclusion, <14 weeks; nondiabetic; other risk factors, nr GWG, PE, PIH, GDM , preterm delivery, CS Birth weight, LGA, SGA, hypoglycaemia, shoulder dystocia 236
Khaledan 2010 Iran Race, nr; BMI restrictions, nr; age restrictions, nr; GA at inclusion, 24–32 weeks; no diabetes mellitus type 1 (DM1) with poor control; no known pre-existing health problems GWG, GA, CS Birth weight 39
Khoury 2005 Norway Caucasian; BMI, 19–32 kg/m2; age, 21–38 years; GA at inclusion, 17–20 weeks; nondiabetic; no known pre-existing health problems GWG, PE, preterm delivery Birth weight, SGA, intra-uterine death 290
Luoto 2011 Finland Race, nr; BMI, >17 kg/m2; age, >18 years; GA at inclusion, 8–12 weeks; nondiabetic; no known pre-existing health problems GWG, GA, PE, GDM Birth weight, LGA, SGA 399
Nascimento 2011 Brazil Race, nr; BMI, >26 kg/m2; age >18 years; GA at inclusion, 14–24 weeks; nondiabetic; no known pre-existing health problems GWG, PIH, GDM, CS Birth weight, AS, LGA, SGA 82
Ong 2009 Australia Race, nr; obese; age restrictions, nr; GA at inclusion, 18 weeks; nondiabetic; other risk factors, nr GWG   12
Oostdam 2012 Netherlands Ethnically diverse; BMI, ≥25.0 kg/m2; age, >18 years; GA at inclusion, <20 weeks; nondiabetic; no known pre-existing health problems GWG, GDM Birth weight 124
Phelan 2011 USA Ethnically diverse; BMI, ≥19.8–26.0 kg/m2; age >18 years; GA at inclusion, 10–16 weeks; glucose status, nr; no known pre-existing health problems GWG, GA, PE, PIH, GDM, preterm delivery, CS Birth weight, macrosomia, birth weight <2,500 g 401
Poston 2013 UK Race, nr; BMI, ≥30 kg/m2; age restrictions, nr; GA at inclusion, >15+0 weeks and <17+6; nondiabetic; no known pre-existing health problems GA, GWG, PE, GDM, mode of delivery Birth weight, macrosomia, still birth 183
Prevedel 2003 Brazil Race, nr; BMI restrictions, nr; age restrictions, nr (primiparous or adolescents); GA at inclusion, 16–20 weeks; glucose status, nr; no known pre-existing health problems GWG, preterm delivery Birth weight, SGA 132
Rauh 2013 Germany Race, nr; BMI, ≥18.5 kg/m2; age, ≥18 years; GA at inclusion, <18 weeks; nondiabetic; no known pre-existing health problems GWG, GDM, IOL, CS, preterm delivery LGA, SGA 250
Sagedal 2014 Norway Race, nr; BMI, ≥19 kg/m2; age, ≥18 years; GA at inclusion, <20 weeks; nondiabetic; no known pre-existing health problems GWG, GDM, CS LGA 600
Stafne 2012 Norway White; no BMI restrictions; age, >18 years; GA at inclusion, 18–22 weeks; nondiabetic; no known pre-existing health problems GA, PE, PIH, GDM, CS Birth weight, AS, LGA, admission to NICU 124
Vesco 2013 USA Race, nr; BMI, ≥30 kg/m2; age, nr; GA at inclusion, <20 weeks; nondiabetic; no known pre-existing health problems GWG, GA, PE, PIH, GDM, CS, preterm delivery Birth weight, LGA, SGA, macrosomia (4,000 g) 114
Vinter 2011 Denmark Caucasian; BMI, 30–45 kg/m2; age, 18–40 years; GA at inclusion, 10–14 weeks; nondiabetic; no known pre-existing health problems GWG, PE, PIH, GDM, CS LGA, admission to NICU 855
Vitolo 2011 Brazil Race, nr; BMI restrictions, none; age, <35 years; GA at inclusion, 10–29 weeks; nondiabetic; no known pre-existing health problems GWG, PE, PIH, GDM, preterm birth Birth weight 315
Walsch 2012 Ireland Race, nr; BMI restrictions, nr; age, >18 years; GA at inclusion, <18 weeks; nondiabetic; no known pre-existing health problems GWG, GA, preterm delivery, IOL, CS Birth weight, macrosomia 304
Wolff 2008 Denmark Caucasian; BMI, ≥30 kg/m2; age, >18 to <45 years; GA at inclusion, <18 weeks; nondiabetic; no known pre-existing health problems GWG PE, PIH, GDM , CS Birth weight 800
Yeo 2012 USA Ethnically diverse; BMI, >19.8 kg/m2; no age restrictions; GA at inclusion, 18 weeks; nondiabetic; no known pre-existing health problems GWG, PE, PIH Birth weight 17
  1. AS Apgar score, CS caesarean section, GA gestational age, GDM gestational diabetes mellitus, GWG gestational weight gain, IOL induction of labour, LGA large for gestational age, NICU Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, nr not reported, PE pre-eclampsia, PIH pregnancy-induced hypertension, RDS respiratory distress syndrome, SGA small for gestational age.