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Table 2 Estimates (direct pairwise and network meta-analysis, random effects models) of effect size (95% confidence intervals/95% credible intervals) expressed as mean difference for the effects of diet + exercise vs. diet, diet + exercise vs. exercise and diet vs. exercise on anthropometric outcomes, blood lipids, blood pressure and cardiorespiratory fitness and between-study heterogeneity variance ( τ 2 / τ )

From: Impact of long-term lifestyle programmes on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors in overweight/obese participants: a systematic review and network meta-analysis

Outcomes No. of studies Sample size MD 95% CI τ 2 I 2 MD 95% CrI τ 95% CrI
D + E vs. D
 BW (kg) 17 2,317 -1.38 [-1.98, -0.79] 0.00 0% -1.38 [-2.62, -0.17] 2.06 [1.37, 2.96]
 WC (cm) 8 1,124 -1.68 [-2.66, -0.70] 0.00 0% -1.69 [-3.32, -0.20] 1.36 [0.07, 3.43]
 FM (kg) 9 1,012 -1.65 [-2.81, -0.49] 1.95 61% -1.89 [-3.44, -0.43] 2.08 [1.29, 3.24]
 WHR (U) 6 646 -0.01 [-0.02, -0.01] 0.00 0% -0.01 [-0.05, 0.03] 0.06 [0.04, 0.10]
 TC (mg/dl) 9 1,175 -2.19 [-7.84, 3.46] 54.09 62% -2.51 [-7.61, 2.29] 5.42 [0.86, 10.84]
 LDL-C (mg/dl) 8 1,147 -0.93 [-6.14, 4.27] 45.03 65% -1.54 [-6.16, 3.14] 5.29 [1.26, 9.97]
 HDL-C (mg/dl) 9 1,175 1.62 [0.28, 2.95] 2.46 51% -1.29 [-1.38, 3.86] 4.03 [2.38, 6.33]
 TG (mg/dl) 9 1,175 -10.08 [-17.38, -2.79] 0.00 0% -9.90 [-19.98, -0.96] 7.28 [0.37, 19.4]
 DBP (mmHg) 7 1,099 -1.20 [-2.26, -0.15] 0.74 28% -1.10 [-2.34, 0.01] 0.92 [0.04, 2.45]
 SBP (mmHg) 7 1,099 -0.24 [-1.45, 0.97] 0.00 0% -0.39 [-1.89, 1.01] 0.87 [0.04, 2.62]
 VO2 max (ml/kg/min) 6 810 3.61 [2.07, 5.14] 4.19 88% 3.75 [2.28, 5.32] 1.94 [1.13, 3.18]
D + E vs. E
 BW (kg) 9 1,350 -4.13 [-5.62, -2.64] 4.36 77% -4.32 [-5.74, -2.90] 2.06 [1.37, 2.96]
 WC (cm) 3 409 -3.00 [-5.81, -0.20] 5.24 69% -3.45 [-5.32, -1.23] 1.36 [0.07, 3.43]
 FM (kg) 5 690 -3.60 [-6.15, -1.05] 8.82 92% -3.87 [-5.61, -2.18] 2.08 [1.29, 3.24]
 WHR (U) 4 420 -0.01 [-0.02, -0.00] 0.00 15% -0.007 [-0.06, 0.04] 0.06 [0.04, 0.10]
 TC (mg/dl) 4 420 -11.36 [-15.93, -6.79] 0.00 0% -7.50 [-13.47, -1.39] 5.42 [0.86, 10.84]
 LDL-C (mg/dl) 4 420 -10.03 [-14.28, -5.78] 2.22 8% -5.90 [-11.39, -0.23] 5.29 [1.26, 9.97]
 HDL-C (mg/dl) 4 420 -0.34 [-2.82, 2.14] 6.80 76% 0.17 [-3.14, 3.32] 4.03 [2.38, 6.33]
 TG (mg/dl) 4 420 -11.18 [-26.99, 4.62] 138.3 38% -13.34 [-25.92, -2.12] 7.28 [0.37, 19.4]
 DBP (mmHg) 4 420 -2.06 [-3.39, -0.72] 0.00 0% -2.22 [-3.93, -0.74] 0.92 [0.04, 2.45]
 SBP (mmHg) 4 420 -2.84 [-4.54, -1.13] 0.00 0% -2.70 [-4.57, -0.85] 0.87 [0.04, 2.62]
 VO2 max (ml/kg/min) 5 645 2.13 [1.52, 2.74] 0.05 9% 2.24 [0.57, 3.90] 1.94 [1.13, 3.18]
D vs. E
 BW (kg) 13 1,638 -2.93 [-4.18, -1.68] 3.70 73% -2.93 [-4.20, -1.66] 2.06 [1.37, 2.96]
 WC (cm) 4 539 -1.75 [-4.12, 0.62] 4.80 71% -1.76 [-3.48, 0.44] 1.36 [0.07, 3.43]
 FM (kg) 9 964 -2.20 [-3.75, -0.66] 4.66 82% -1.97 [-3.45, -0.45] 2.08 [1.29, 3.24]
 WHR (U) 4 414 -0.00 [-0.01, 0.01] 0.00 16% 0.002 [-0.05, 0.05] 0.06 [0.04, 0.10]
 TC (mg/dl) 7 665 -3.91 [-8.11, 0.30] 9.04 22% -4.98 [-10.22, 0.64] 5.42 [0.86, 10.84]
 LDL-C (mg/dl) 7 665 -3.19 [-6.85, 0.48] 6.45 21% -4.36 [-9.25, 0.70] 5.29 [1.26, 9.97]
 HDL-C (mg/dl) 7 665 -0.96 [-1.88, -0.04] 0.00 0% -1.12 [-4.06, -1.76] 4.03 [2.38, 6.33]
 TG (mg/dl) 7 665 -3.80 [-12.21, 4.62] 0.00 0% -3.44 [-13.99, 6.65] 7.28 [0.37, 19.4]
 DBP (mmHg) 6 573 -1.33 [-3.00, 0.35] 11.19 37% -1.12 [-2.67, 0.31] 0.92 [0.04, 2.45]
 SBP (mmHg) 6 578 -2.19 [-4.23, -0.15] 2.07 25% -2.31 [-4.10, 0.51] 0.87 [0.04, 2.62]
 VO2 max (ml/kg/min) 6 677 -1.16 [-2.42, 0.09] 2.17 80% -1.15 [-3.16, 0.04] 1.94 [1.13, 3.18]
  1. BW body weight, CI confidence intervals, D diet, DBP diastolic blood pressure, D + E diet and exercise, E exercise, FM fat mass, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, SBP systolic blood pressure, TC total cholesterol, TG triacyglycerols, VO 2 max maximal oxygen uptake, WC waist circumference, WHR waist-to-hip ratio.