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Table 1 Inclusion criteria used in previous meta-analyses and the current study (participants, exposures, and outcomes)

From: Racism as a determinant of health: a protocol for conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis

Study Participants Exposures Outcomes (authors’ original categorizations)
Pascoe and Smart Richman [9] Not restricted Discrimination (including racial discrimination) Physical health (risk factors related to cardiovascular disease (for example, blood pressure, intramedial thickness, plaque, and heart rate variability), a multitude of diseases and physical conditions (for example, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, pelvic inflammatory disease, diabetes, yeast infections, and respiratory conditions), other general indicators of illness (for example, nausea, pain, and headaches), and general health questionnaires)
Mental health (symptomatology scales for mental illness (for example, depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and indicators of psychosis or paranoia), psychological distress, and indicators of general well-being (for example, well-being, self-esteem, positive self-perceptions, life satisfaction, perceived stress, anger, positive and negative affect, happiness, perceived quality of life, and general mental health))
Health behaviors (alcohol use and abuse, smoking behavior, substance use, good health habits (for example, sleep, diet, exercise, medication adherence, missing doctor appointments, and eating behaviors and attitudes))
Stress response (cardiovascular reactivity, anger, psychologically felt stress, changes in state self-esteem, changes in feelings of well-being and life satisfaction, feelings of depression and anxiety, and self-reported positive and negative emotion)
Lee and Ahn [15] Asian participants (not restricted by country) Racism and racial discrimination Mental health (anxiety, depression, psychological distress (including overall measures of mental health))
Lee and Ahn [16] Latina/o /Hispanic Americans in the USA Discrimination (including racial discrimination) Mental health (anxiety, depression, psychological distress (including overall measures of mental health), and unhealthy behaviors (general health behaviors, alcohol and substance use, and perceived physical health)
Pieterse et al. [14] Black American adults in the USA Racism and racial discrimination Mental health (anxiety, depression, psychiatric symptoms, life satisfaction, self-esteem, general distress)
Current meta-analysis Not restricted Racism and racial discrimination Physical health (infectious disease and chronic conditions and markers, for example, body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR), blood pressure, metabolic and cardiovascular disease)
Pregnancy and birth outcomes (for example, premature birth, low birth weight)
Health behaviors/risk behaviors (for example, alcohol, tobacco, substance use)
Negative mental health (for example, depression, psychological distress, stress, anxiety, social and emotional difficulties)
Positive mental health (for example, self-esteem, self-worth, resilience)
General health (for example, feeling unhappy, feeling unhealthy)
Well-being, life satisfaction, quality of life
    Healthcare use, satisfaction with healthcare system (for example, use of screening tests, access to healthcare and treatment, adherence to treatment)