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Table 3 Factors that may increase and decrease the quality level of evidence

From: Judging the quality of evidence in reviews of prognostic factor research: adapting the GRADE framework

Evidence about intervention[16] Evidence about prognosis
Factors that may decrease the quality
1. Research design 1. Phase of investigation
2. Study limitations 2. Study limitations
3. Inconsistency 3. Inconsistency
4. Indirectness 4. Indirectness
5. Imprecision 5. Imprecision
6. Publication bias 6. Publication bias
Factors that may increase the quality
1. Large effect size 1. Moderate or large effect size
2. Exposure-response gradient 2. Exposure-response gradient
3. Plausible confounding