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Table 3 Summary of results for iron fortification in children

From: Micronutrient fortification of food and its impact on woman and child health: a systematic review

Outcome/quality of evidence Combined effect Population Age groups Country Fortificant type Food vehicle
General/healthy population (studies/ participants) Deficient population Infants Preschool and school- going children Low- and lower middle income countries Upper middle- and higher-income countries Ferrous sulfate NaFeEDTA Processed food Staples Condiments
Hemoglobin levels SMD: 0.55 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.76) SMD: 0.50 (95% CI: 0.28, 0.71) SMD: 0.79 (95% CI: 0.19, 1.38) SMD: 0.81 (95% CI: 0.31, 1.31) SMD: 0.46 (95% CI: 0.24, 0.67) SMD: 0.32 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.50) SMD: 0.67 (95% CI: 0.36, 0.97) SMD: 0.50 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.86) SMD: 0.76 (95% CI: 0.06, 1.47) SMD: 0.55 (95% CI: 0.29, 0.82) SMD: 0.44 (95% CI: 0.10, 0.79) SMD: 1.14 (95% CI: -0.09, 2.37)
Quality of evidence: Moderate   25 studies 5,083 participants 6 studies 1,184 participants 12 studies 1,834 participants 16 studies 3,832 participants 10 studies 1,937 participants 20 studies 4,176 participants 9 studies 1,076 participants 6 studies 1,172 participants 18 studies 3,317 participants 8 studies 1,941 participants 3 studies 705 participants
Serum ferritin levels SMD: 0.91 (95% CI: 0.38, 1.44) SMD: 0.63 (95% CI: 0.28, 0.98) SMD: 1.37 (95% CI: 0.01, 2.74) SMD: 0.63 (95% CI: 0.28, 0.98) SMD: 1.37 (95% CI: 0.01, 2.74) SMD: 1.37 (95% CI: 0.01, 2.74) SMD: 0.68 (95% CI: 0.49, 0.87) SMD: 0.84 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.09) SMD: 1.83 (95% CI: -0.08, 3.73) SMD: 0.66 (95% CI: 0.36, 0.97) SMD: 0.48 (95% CI: 0.17, 0.78) SMD: 2.80 (95% CI: 2.43, 3.17)
Quality of evidence: Moderate   4 studies 952 participants 3 studies 555 participants 4 studies 952 participants 3 studies 555 participants 3 studies 555 participants 3 studies 547 participants 3 studies 539 participants 2 studies 385 participants 5 studies 1,097 participants 1 study 170 participants 1 study 240 participants
Effect on anemia RR: 0.55 (95% CI: 0.42, 0.72) RR: 0.64 (95% CI: 0.50, 0.82) RR: 0.23 (95% CI: 0.04, 1.25) RR: 0.42 (95% CI: 0.24, 0.72) RR: 0.60 (95% CI: 0.43, 0.84) RR: 0.91 (95% CI: 0.72, 1.14) RR: 0.41 (95% CI: 0.28, 0.61) RR: 0.52 (95% CI: 0.34, 0.79) RR: 0.46 (95% CI: 0.17, 1.23) RR: 0.46 (95% CI: 0.28, 0.76) RR: 0.81 (95% CI: 0.60, 1.10) RR: 0.12 (95% CI: 0.01, 2.16)
Quality of evidence: Moderate   15 studies 3,096 participants 3 studies 555 participants 6 studies 1,234 participants 10 studies 2,013 participants 6 studies 1,171 participants 11 studies 2,396 participants 4 studies 630 participants 4 studies 800 participants 10 studies 1,617 participants 5 studies 1,312 participants 2 studies 568 participants
  1. Estimates in bold show significant impacts. CI, confidence interval; NaFeEDTA, sodium iron ethylenediaminetetraacetate RR: relative risk; SMD: standard mean difference.