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Table 4 Results of the published instruments assessing causal relationship between medication exposure and adverse events when applied to patients in this case series

From: Use of case reports and the Adverse Event Reporting System in systematic reviews: overcoming barriers to assess the link between Crohn’s disease medications and hepatosplenic T-cell lymphoma

Medication(s) Naranjo score Kramer score WHO score
Biologics
Adalimumab Possible Possible Possible
Certolizumab pegol No use reported in any case report
Infliximab Possible Possible Possible
Natalizumab Possible Possible Possible
Ustekinumab Possible Possible Possible
Anti-metabolites
6-mercaptopurine Possible Possible Possible
Azathioprine Possible Possible Possible
Aminosalicylates
Balsalazide Possible Unlikely Possible
Mesalamine Possible Unlikely Possible
Sulfasalazine Possible Unlikely Possible
Corticosteroids
Budesonide Possible Unlikely Possible
Hydrocortisone Possible Unlikely Possible
Prednisone Possible Unlikely Possible
Prednisolone Possible Unlikely Possible
Corticosteroid unspecified Possible Unlikely Possible
Other medications
Cyclosporine Possible Possible Possible
Metronidazole Possible Unlikely Possible
Nitrofurantoin Possible Unlikely Possible
Piperacillin/tazobactam Possible Unlikely Possible
Doxycycline Possible Unlikely Possible
Ciprofloxacin Possible Unlikely Possible
  1. Possible, all cases reporting that medication received a score of ‘possible’ using that particular causality assessment; unlikely, all cases reporting that medication received a score of ‘unlikely’ using that particular causality assessment. WHO, World Health Organization.