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Table 1 Two-by-two table and derivative test accuracy measures

From: A qualitative study into the difficulties experienced by healthcare decision makers when reading a Cochrane diagnostic test accuracy review

  Reference standard (disease status) Test accuracy measures ↓
Disease present Disease absent
Index test (test under evaluation) Positive result True positive (TP) False positive (FP) Positive predictive value = TP/(TP+FP)
Negative result False negative (FN) True negative (TN) Negative predictive value= TN/(TN+FN)
Test accuracy measures → Sensitivity = TP/(TP+FN) Specificity = TN/(TN+FP) Diagnostic odds ratio = (TPxTN)/(FPxFN)