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Table 1 Characteristics and quality ratings of the studies in the effectiveness review (n = 47)

From: Environmental interventions to reduce fear of crime: systematic review of effectiveness

First author [reference(s)] Design Sample size (I/C) Follow-up Quality rating Location Intervention content
Category 1. Home security improvements
Allatt [14, 15] CBA(S) 338/322 1 year A Newcastle and Gateshead, UK Improvement of residential security on deprived housing estates
Brownsell [16] CBA(S) 24/28 5 years A UK, location NR Telecare package in sheltered housing for older people
Halpern [17] UBA(S) 55 3 yearsa C UK, location NR Comprehensive renovation program on housing estate, with emphasis on security
Matthews [18] UBA(D) 636 1 yeara C Leicester, UK Multi-component crime reduction strategy, including residential security and social components
Matthews [19] UBA(D) 907 1 yeara C Leicester, UK Similar to Matthews [18]
Category 2. Installation or improvement of street lighting
Atkins [20] CBA(S) 248/131 2 months A Wandsworth, London, UK Improvement of street lighting
Bainbridge [21] UBA(S) 468 1 year B Birmingham, UK Improvement of street lighting
Barr [22] UBA(S) 229 2 months C Manchester, UK Improvement of street lighting
Burden [23] UBA(D) NR NR C Leeds, UK Improvement of street lighting
Davidson [24] UBA(S) 251 6 weeks C Hull, UK Improvement of street lighting
Herbert [25, 26] UBA(S) 154 2 months C Cardiff, UK Improvement of street lighting
Knight [27] UBA(S) 125 3 weeks C St Helens, UK Change of street lighting from yellow to white lights
Painter [28, 29] UBA(D) 207 6 weeks C North London, UK Improvement of street lighting
Painter [29, 30] UBA(D) 143 6 weeks C East London, UK Improvement of street lighting
Painter [29, 31] UBA(S) 263 13 months B West London, UK Improvement of street lighting
Painter [32] CBA(S) 431/443 1 year A Dudley, UK Improvement of street lighting
Painter [33] CBA(S) 317/88 11 months A Stoke-on-Trent, UK Improvement of street lighting
Painter [34] CBA(S) 140/167 1 year A Dudley, UK Same intervention as Painter [32]
Payne [35] UBA(S) 228 <1 year C Rugby, UK Improvement of street lighting
Vamplew [36] UBA(D) 820 <1 month C Middlesbrough, UK Improvement of street lighting
Vrij [37] UBA(D) 160 1 week C Enkhuizen, the Netherlands Brighter bulbs and installation of one extra lamppost
Category 3. Installation of closed-circuit television (CCTV) systems
Brown [38] UBA(D) 699 1 year C Birmingham, UK Installation of 12 CCTV cameras in city centre
Ditton [39] CBA(D+) 1,018 total 15 months C Glasgow, UK Installation of 32 CCTV cameras in city centre
Gill [40, 41] CBA(D−) 4,427/2,099 1 year C Several locations, England Installation of nine different CCTV systems, four in town/city centers, five in residential areas
Musheno [42] CBA(D+) 32/29 3 months C New York City, NY, USA CCTV in public housing project with transmission to residents’ television sets
Squires [43] UBA(D) 750 8 months C East London, UK Installation of CCTV in town centre
Squires [44] UBA(D) 243 1 year C Brighton, UK Installation of 10 CCTV cameras in housing estate
Category 4. Multi-component interventions for crime prevention
Arthur Young & Company [45, 46] CBA(S) 920/150 2 yearsa A Chicago, IL, USA Multi-component intervention in a housing estate (locks, security personnel, entry systems, fencing, various social components)
Baker [47] CBA(D−) 124/337 6 months C Pennsylvania, PA, USA Multi-component intervention in a park (CCTV, fencing, lighting, locks, signage, cleaning, community policing, Neighborhood Watch)
Donnelly [48, 49] UBA(D) 191 5 years C Dayton, OH, USA Multi-component community-based program (road closures, various social components, community-oriented policing)
Felson [50] UBA(D) 3,581 3 years C New York City, NY, USA Extensive physical redesign of bus station using CPTED principles (redesign, renovation, cleaning, lighting, information, social and policing interventions for homeless people)
Fowler [5154] CBA(D+) 93/798 3 years C Hartford, CT, USA Multi-component community-based program (road closures, landscaping, community-oriented policing, resident organizations)
Kaplan [55] CBA(D−) 2,772 total 6 months C Broward County, FL, USA Extensive renovation work in schools using CPTED principles (renovation, reconstruction, fencing, alarms)
Kaplan [5658] UBA(D) 311 3 yearsa C Portland, OR, USA Multi-component community-based intervention with emphasis on commercial premises (security advice, lighting, traffic calming, landscaping, cleaning, bus shelters, business organization, social programs)
Mazerolle [59, 60] RCT Approx. 199/199 3 months B Oakland, CA, USA Police-led intervention with focus on reducing disorder in the physical environment by enforcing building/housing codes
Webb [61] CBA(D+) Approx. 560/560 Unclear C London, UK Multi-component crime prevention project on the London Underground (CCTV, passenger alarms, manned kiosks, mirrors, lighting, policing patrols)
Category 5. Housing improvement and relocation
Barnes [62] CBA(S) 199/85 6 months C West London, UK Refurbishing housing association housing and relocating tenants to new, improved housing
Blackman [63, 64] UBA(S) 415 5 yearsa C Newcastle, UK Housing renewal program (environmental improvements, refurbishment, demolition, security, road safety improvements)
Critchley [65] CBA(S) 200/207 1 year A Liverpool, UK Housing redevelopment with main focus on energy efficiency, security improvements (entry systems, CCTV, lighting)
Foster [66] CBA(D−) 820/862 3 yearsa C East London and Hull, UK Tenant management program including environmental improvements (security, maintenance, landscaping, entry systems)
GoWell [67, 68] CBA(D+) 6,008 total 2 yearsa C Glasgow, UK Several types of regeneration and housing program, ranging from extensive rebuilding to minor renovation works
Nair [69] UBA(S) 69 3 months C Glasgow, UK Re-lighting, landscaping, housing renovation, including security improvements
Petticrew [70, 71] CBA(S) 334/389 2 years A Several locations, Scotland Relocation of social housing tenants to new housing
Category 6. Area-based regeneration initiatives
Beatty [7274] CBA(S) 19,633/4,000 6 yearsa A Several locations, England Broad multi-component regeneration program, New Deal for Communities
Rhodes [75] UBA(S) 3,459 5 yearsa C Several locations, England Broad multi-component regeneration program, Single Regeneration Budget
Category 7. Small-scale environmental improvements in public areas
Cohen [76] CBA(D+) 1,535 total 3 to 14 months C South California, CA, USA Improvements to public parks
Palmer [77] UBA(D) 290 Unclear C Durham, UK Bus station repainted and graffiti removed by offenders serving Community Service Orders