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Table 1 Inclusion criteria (PICOTS elements)

From: A protocol for a systematic review of birth preparedness and complication readiness programs


Inclusion criteria


Pregnant women, women who have recently delivered, husbands of pregnant women, husbands of women who have recently delivered, health-care providers, traditional birth attendants, all adults in the community (in low- and middle-income countries)


Antenatal care education containing BP/CR components, community programs including BP/CR, single BP/CR interventions, training of health workers (skilled birth attendant, community health worker, health promotion officer), training of community volunteers


Standard practice


Preparedness: Knowledge of danger signs, creation of and applying a birth plan, funds allocated, transportation arrangements

Pregnancy: Antenatal care with skilled health worker

Delivery: Delivery by a skilled birth attendant, maternal and neonatal mortality and morbidity


Duration of follow-up and possible exposure to the intervention


Low- and middle-income countries. Interventions can use facility-based, community-based or home-based services

  1. BP/CR, birth preparedness and complication readiness; PICOTS, participant, intervention, control, outcome, timeframe and setting.