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Table 3 Summary of results of included studies

From: Insufficient evidence for the use of a physical examination to detect maltreatment in children without prior suspicion: a systematic review

Author (year) Children with unconfirmed signs of maltreatment upon physical examination/children examined Children with signs of maltreatment upon physical examination confirmed by reference standard/children examined
Afifi (2003) [27] 81/555 (14.6%) 75/555 (13.5%)
(burns 30, bruises 20, scars 19, scratches 10, bite marks 2)
Palazzi (2005) [28] Skin lesions: 1,177/9,510 (12.4%) Skin lesions: 75/9,510 (0.8%)
Oral lesions: 123/9,137 (1.3%) Oral lesions: 8/9,137 (0.09%)
Present or past burns, fractures and head trauma are presented separately in the original article. However, it is unclear whether this is assessed during physical examination and, therefore, these results are not included in this review.  
The number of children with at least one finding upon physical examination is unknown
Rosenberg (1982) [29] Unkempt: 37/473 (7.8%) Unkempt: 7/473 (1.5%)
Bruises, burns, human bites: 18/473 (3.8%) Bruises, burns, human bites: 5/473 (1.1%)
Bald occiput*: 14/474 (3%) Bald occiput*: 0/474 (0%)
  The number of children with at least one finding upon physical examination is unknown  
  1. *This is no longer considered a sign of child abuse.