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Table 1 Overview of studies included in the systematic review ( n = 10)

From: Waist circumference and pulmonary function: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author, year, place Age (years) Design Waist circumference measurement method Sample Sex Effect Adjustments
Canoy and colleagues, 2004[3], UK 45 to 79 Cohort with cross-sectional analysis Smallest circumference between the ribs and iliac crest (quintiles) 9,674 Male FEV1 (ml): β = −120.3 (95% CI = −134.6, –106.1). FVC (ml): β = −129.1 (95% CI = −147.9. –110.2) Age, height, BMI
11,876 Female FEV1 (ml): β = −53.2 (95% CI = −62.0, –44.5). FVC (ml): β = −60.5 (95% CI = −71.7, –49.2)
Carey and colleagues, 1999[7], UK 18 to 73 Cohort Midpoint between the ribs and iliac crest (difference in standard deviations of the measure in different follow-ups)   Male ΔFEV1 (ml): 18 to 45 years, β = −30.0 (SE 12.0); 46 to 73 years, β = −53.0 (SE 14.0) Delta FEV1 adjusted for height and age
  Female ΔFEV1 (ml): 18 to 45 years, β = −42.0 (SE 10.0); 46 to 73 years, β = −30.0 (SE 11.0)
Chen and colleagues, 2001[8], UK 25 to 64 Cross-sectional Midpoint between the ribs and iliac crest (centimeters) 865 Male FEV1 (l): β = −0.017 (SE 0.004). FVC (l): β = −0.008 (SE 0.004) Height, age, weight, current occupation, caloric intake and smoking
971 Female FEV1 (l): β = −0.009 (SE 0.002). FVC (l): β = −0.007 (SE 0.003)
Chen and colleagues, 2009[9], Canada 6 to 17 Cross-sectional Smallest circumference between the ribs and iliac crest (centimeters) 718 Both FEV1 (l): β = 0.002 (SE 0.001). FVC (l): β = 0.004 (SE 0.002). Relation FEV1/FVC: β = −0.053 (SE 0.027) Sex, age, weight and height
Chen and colleagues, 2007[5], Canada 18 to 79 Cross-sectional Smallest circumference between the ribs and iliac crest (centimeters) 1,674 Both FEV1 (l): β = −0.011 (SE 0.002). FVC (l): β = −0.013 (SE 0.002). Relation FEV1/FVC: β = −0.031 (SE 0.025) Sex, age, height, weight and smoking
Choi and colleagues, 2011[21], South Korea ≥19 Cross-sectional Midpoint between the ribs and iliac crest (centimeters) 1,059 Male FVC (% predicted): β = −0.17 (SE 0.059). Relation FEV1/FVC: β = 0.0007 (SE 0.0005) Smoking, blood glucose, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, triglyceride and HDL
1,555 Female FVC (% predicted): β = −0.15 (SE 0.04). Relation FEV1/FVC: β = −0.0001 (SE 0.002)
Ochs-Balcom and colleagues, 2006[11], USA 35 to 65 Cross-sectional Smallest circumference between the ribs and iliac crest (centimeters) 985 Male FEV1 (% predicted): β = −0.233 (SE 0.04). FVC (% predicted): β = −0.350 (SE 0.04). Relation FEV1/FVC: β = 0.089 (SE 0.02) Smoking, schooling and eosinophils. FEV1/FVC ratio adjusted for age, height and skin color too
1,168 Female FEV1 (% predicted): β = −0.086 (SE 0.03). FVC (% predicted): β = −0.176 (SE 0.03). Relation FEV1/FVC: β = 0.086 (SE 0.02)
Paek and colleagues, 2010[22], South Korea ≥19 Cross-sectional Smallest circumference between the ribs and iliac crest (centimeters) 4,001 Both FEV1 (% predicted): β = −0.21. FVC (% predicted): β = −0.13. Relation FEV1/FVC: β = −0.029 Relation WC/height, age, sex, smoking, physical activity, alcohol consumption and socioeconomic status
Steele and colleagues, 2009[20], UK 40.6 (mean) Cohort with cross-sectional analysis Midpoint between the ribs and iliac crest (centimeters) 238 Male FEV1 (l): β = −0.02 (95% CI = −0.02, –0.01). FVC (l): β = −0.025 (95% CI = −0.032, –0.018) Age, height and smoking
364 Female FEV1 (l): β = −0.004 (95% CI = −0.008, –0.001). FVC (l): β = −0.004 (95% CI = −0.009, 0.001)
Ubilla and colleagues, 2008[19], Chile 21 to 28 Cohort with cross-sectional analysis Navel line (terciles, middle as reference) 550 Male FEV1 (ml): lower tercile, β = 93.1 (95% CI = 14.4, 200.6); upper tercile, β = −76.9 (95% CI = −183.2, 29.5). FVC (ml): lower tercile, β = 80.7 (95% CI = 43.0, 204.4); upper tercile, β = −98.8 (95% CI = −221.2, 23.6) Age, height, smoking, number of siblings, schooling and gestational age. Nutritional variables throughout life, except BMI
671 Female FEV1 (ml): lower tercile, β = −62.1 (95% CI = −132.1, 7.9); upper tercile, β = −22.1 (95% CI = −93.7, 49.5). FVC (ml): lower tercile, β = −96.2 (95% CI = −177.1, –15.2); upper tercile, β = −42.5 (95% CI = −125.3, 40.3)
  1. BMI, body mass index; CI, confidence interval; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 second; FVC, forced vital capacity; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; SE, standard error; WC, waist circumference.